Posted by: Devi Nangrani | مَي 26, 2014

“Sindh Through the Centuries” Seminar -March 2014

Shoukat Hussain Shoro

Shoukat Hussain Shoro

2nd International Seminar on “Sindh Through the Centuries”(Day-1)

Inaugural Session

March 24, 2014

Opposition Leader in National Assembly of Pakistan, Syed Khursheed Ahmed Shah on Monday, March 24, 2014 underlined the need of more research on Indus Valley and transferring the knowledge to the people.

“There are several aspects of history of Indus Valley, which are yet to be explored,” he said adding that ambiguity still exists about Rani Kot located in Khirthar Mountain range as to who built it. Similarly history of Kotdiji too needs to be researched, he said in his presidential address at inaugural ceremony of Second International Conference on ‘Sindh through the Centuries’ organized by Sindh Madressatul Islam University at Marriott hotel.

He also drew attention of historians to the distortion of Sindh history and cited example of birthplace of Father of Nation Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah who was born at Jhirrak town of Thatta district but the textbooks of present day contain lessons that he was born in Karachi. “We must get rid of complex and proudly tell the world real facts about it.” He said Sindh is proud having given birth to great leaders of international repute like Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto.

Syed Khursheed Ahmed Shah said Sindh is land of Sufis and the people of this land embraced Islam only because of their influence and not through the sword. He however said the immigrants who used to came here in different periods of history prevailed over Sindhis. Syed Khursheed Ahmed Shah called for protecting the Sindhi language and added that he was addressing the seminar in Sindhi language as it was about history of Sindh. He lamented that 70 percent people of Sindh were still illiterate, as children use to study at such schools where the teachers remain absent.

Opposition leader proudly said Sindh was intact while Kashmir is divided in Pakistan and India, Gilgit-Baltistan is part of Pakistan, Iran and India. Similarly, he added, the Punjab is also divided into two parts, one in India and other in Pakistan while Balochistan is divided between Pakistan and Iran.

Leader of Opposition in Senate Senator Aitzaz Ahsan speaking as chief guest said Sindh of today is a society of migrants as most of the people from Syeds of Saudi Arabia to Urdu speaking from India came and settled here. It is the land of the Sindh that embarraced everyone of them. “Sindh is distinct in its exclusiveness, as it embraced all the immigrants.” Mr. Aitzaz Ahsan told his frequent visits to Mohen Jo Daro since early seventies and said he was impressed by the civic system of ancient city. “We can see the present cities like Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and other cities which have turned into heaps of garbage. Briefly tracing the history of kings and kingdoms, Mr Aitzaz Ahsan said according his findings there were no kings in that period of history and only the priests used to govern. “I wrote a chapter in my book titled ‘Priests of Mohenjo Daro.'” He called for more and more research on Indus Valley history.

In her keynote address renowned historian Dr. Hamida Khuhro also called for more research saying ‘we have not been able to identify many urban settlements and cities mentioned by historians and travelers. She gave example of Ibn Battuta who mentions the city of Janani which he describes as large fine city on the banks of Indus River with splendid markets. “Also not much work has been done on the social and economic history of the entire period from pre-Muslim times to the colonial period and this is in an unlimited field for research. No serious student of Sindh and researcher will be short of subjects. This vast field of study also includes the much neglected subject of Sindh anthropology,” she said.

Dr. Hamida Khuhro said this region is home to a large number of marginalized communities that are very important to the economy of Sindh through the ages and performed skilled tasks. “For instance the Oads who expertise in mud construction that can well compete the cement and concrete. Mohanas or Mirbahars who plied the Indus in boats are oldest of our communities but are referred as Punjabis in upper Sindh. May be some study can explain why or how?” She said Sindh is suffering from downside of globalization-environmental degradation from pollution, destruction of local habitats, excessive flooding from global warming, salinity and degradation of fertile land and so on. She also referred to floods of 2010 and 2011 that hit the economy of Sindh due to destruction of crops, houses etc. She said ‘We need to have more research to show how to prevent environmental degradation.” “Many inexpert attempts at preservation have had disastrous effects on the irreplaceable monuments and there is need not only of awareness but of expertise and dedication in the work of restoration”, she said. For instance, she added, use of substandard materials for the new tile work that are being used to replace the old, are destroying the beauty and durability of the historic buildings as indeed is the use of concrete instead of age old mixtures of lime plasters the recipes for which can even now be found among the old practitioners of the art.

Earlier, Vice Chancellor of the SMI University, Dr. Muhammad Ali Shaikh welcomed the foreign delegates and participants. He informed the participants how he and Dr. Hamida Khuhro worked on idea of organizing second international conference on history of Sindh after a gap of 39 years. He said that first such conference was held in March 1975 under the patronage of former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. According to him it was first opportunity that a large number of scholars from different countries had come to talk on Sindh. The conference was held at auditorium of the Habib Bank Plaza and continued for six days.

Talking about theme of the conference he said that Sindh has been cradle of civilization from times immemorial. Its geography helped it develop a peculiar culture. Located between two great ancient civilizations, the South Asian and the Middle Eastern, Sindh enjoyed a degree of islolation throughout its history due to physical barriers on its three sides, a vast desert in the east, an ocean in the south and mountain in ranges in the west. Only in the north it is connected with plains of the Punjab through a bottleneck of the Indus, he added. He said that the Sindh has been destination of several migrations in the history of mankind, mainly due to upheavals taking place beyond its borders. All these factors have afforded Sindh to chart a peculiar course of history and to develop its distinct culture. This seminar focuses on history, culture, language, archeology, anthropology, cusine, arts and crafts of the Sindh.

In the last the speakers were given shields by Dr Muhammmad Ali Shaikh and other guests.

Technical Session I

Mir Hazar Khan Bijarani, the Sindh Minister for Works and Communication, has urged upon the civil society to follow the path of brotherhood, religious harmony and tolerance preached by Sindh through ancient days for restoring peace and tranquility in the country as well as region. “Religious harmony and tolerance are social assets and identity of Sindh. We should strictly hold it to defeat terrorism and bring peace in our society”, he said in his presidential address at first technical session titled ‘Sindh: The Cradle of Civilization’ at second international conference on ‘Sindh through the Centuries.’ He said that the Sindh had been a country and not a province in the history having its own identity and prominent culture. Traditionally, he added, Sindhi people were peaceful in the region, but also the warriors at the same time. He hoped that research papers being read at the seminar will be preserved in shape of books, saying that knowledge about history plays vital role in development of nations.

Earlier, US scholar, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer has said that Indus technologies such as metallurgy, ceramics, ornaments, textiles and writing provided a unique window into the socio-economic, ideological and political organization of the early Indus cities during the Harappa Phase of the Indus Tradition.

Kenoyer, who is Professor at Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison said that study of seals and artifacts from the major sites of Harappa and Mohenjodaro, and Lakhanjodaro, Pakistan and Dholavira and other sites in Gujarat, India provide a new understanding of the complex nature of internal trade between the major regions of Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan and Gujarat. He also highlighted new research on sourcing of materials and tracing the movement of raw materials and finished goods within the Indus civilization.

He also looked at major discoveries in adjacent regions that show the extent of trade in goods produced within the Indus Valley and the possible movement of Indus traders and craftsmen to adjacent regions. The areas with the most concrete evidence for Indus trade include Oman and the Gulf, Greater Mesopotamia (Iraq and Iran) and Central Asia. The paper also emphasized the important links between the Indus Tradition and historical period cultures that continue to inhabit the same regions, with a special emphasis on Sindh.

In his research paper, “Between the River and the Desert: The significance of Sindh over millions years of incredible human history, Atsushi Noguchi, researcher at Archeological Investigation Unit, of Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan, said Sindh was the cradle of the Indus civilization in prehistoric times as well as the melting pot of various cultures and ethnic groups. “Sindh keeps its unique position through more than 1.5 million years of incredible human history. Handaxes and cleavers, the oldest form of stone tools, found in the Rohri Hills could be clues of Afro-Asian connection 1.5 million years ago. This shows us the route of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa into Eurasia”, he stated.

Noguchi said another stone tool component from Veesar Valley in the Thar Desert, where our Pakistan-Japan Archaeological Mission is now running a joint research project, has big potential in revealing the history of encounter with and replacement of Archaic Homo by Homo sapiens.

According to him after the Pleistocene Ice Age human beings developed three different types of subsistence economy. In the Thar Desert, new micro-blade technology appeared around the saline Duhbi Lakes at the western fringe of the desert. He maintained that in n Middle Eastern cases, hunter-gatherers with micro-blade technology intensified interaction with herds, learnt controlling and maintaining them, and finally achieved to be the first herders. This probably happened in the Thar Desert in same way.

He said that according to the recent studies, the origin of human adaptation to coastal environment probably appeared in South Africa 100,000 to 70,000 years ago and spread to the Mediterranean region during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic Age. Thus there is the possibility of discovering older evidence of coastal adaptation along the coast of Makran to Karachi In his research paper on ‘Indus Valley Heritage Dholavira’, Dr. Jetho Lalwani, a retired professor from India said that in the third decade of 20th century, while digging of Mohenjo daro, the discovery of ancient and cultivated civilization of Sindhu Valley motivated the scholars to write a new history of human civilization of the world. The major sites discovered so far are Harappa, Mohenjo daro, Ganeriwala, Rakhigarhi, Kalibangan, Rupnagar, Lothal and Dholavira..

After partition the places where digging has been done are Gujrart’s Lothal and Dholvira which are of great importance. During this digging it was found that the towns had been populated in the rectangle are of nearly 48 hectares divided into three parts, this town is the best example of structure. In this town in addition to Rajmahal, the houses too were constructed with planning. Like in Mohenjo Daro high ways, streets, magnificent houses, pakka wells, ponds and drainage facilities in each house etc are seen. Dr. Nilofer Shaikh, former Vice Chancellor, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur presented her paper ‘Sindh: The Millenniums Unraveled’. Her paper focused on unveiling of the earliest levels of prehistory in the above region followed by the settled village cultures, the magnificent Indus Civilization and it’s fading away in the early 2nd millennium BCE. According to her the millennium that followed evanesce of the Indus civilization, is still shrouded in mystery.

Mr. Mohammad Rafique Mughal, Professor at Department of Archeology at Boston University, Massachusetts, USA, presented an overview on ‘Archaeological Heritage of Sindh from Prehistory to the Islamic times’. He highlighted significant aspects of archaeology of Sindh as revealed through excavations and intensive surveys especially in the post-colonial period since 1947.

Technical Session – II

Advisor to Sindh Chief Minister for Culture and Tourism Ms. Sharmila Farooqi has said that nations who do not care of their cultural heritage get lost their identity. Protecting the cultural heritage is a great challenge on account of availability and utilization of funds and the government was trying to meet this challenge, she added. She expressed these views while delivering presidential address at second technical session ‘Archeological Heritage of Sindh’ at first day of the second international conference on ‘Sindh through the Centuries.’ She said that the Federal government had transferred control of 129 cultural and archeological sites to Sindh in 2011 under devolution of federal subjects. According to her preservation and protection of these sites was a bit challenge for the provincial government especially for want of funds and their utilization. Despite difficulties her department took the job and is trying to do it well, she said adding that people of Sindh are proud of their cultural heritage because it is their identity. “Our identity is our rich cultural heritage and history and not the terrorism and extremism”, she added.

Earlier Toshiki Osada, Professor Emeritus of the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan presented his paper. He was head of the team of researchers that painted the fresh image of the Indus civilization through five years of research, known as the Indus Project. “Different regional communities created a loose network through trade”, Osada and his team members concluded in their research. He said that two of the more well-known ruins of the Indus civilization are Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, both in Pakistan. Currently, most researchers focus on the ruins of five major urban centers: the two famous sites; Pakistan’s Ganeriwala, which is in a desert; India’s Dholavira, which is on an island in a marsh; and Rakhigarhi, also in India.

The common view is that the desert sites used to have rivers other than the Indus flowing nearby. Researchers, led by Hideaki Maemoku, a physical geography expert and professor at Japan’s Hosei University, examined the area around the desert ruins with a dating method based on mineral crystals. The conclusion is that the cities were built on these dunes only after the river was long gone. Japanese scholar said that at Dholavira, artifacts have been found that suggest thriving maritime trade. The most likely candidates for this trade are the ancient societies in Mesopotamia, which could have been reached via the Arabian Sea. He stated that the Indus Project used computers to plot changes to the coastline over the centuries to figure out where ancient shorelines would have been. Geological features were also studied and changes in terrain were estimated. “All of this found that sea levels were around 2 meters higher and the coastline was much deeper inland. This suggests that many of the ruins in the area were along the ancient shoreline and that this part of the Indus civilization was dependent on the ocean”, he opined.

According to him the research has also tried to find out when and why the Indus civilization declined. “When changes in the distribution of ruins are traced using what is called a geographic information system, ruins start to concentrate in northern India at the decline of the civilization”, he said, adding that Indus script has yet to be deciphered, which means there is much more to learn. Presenting her paper during the session on recent excavations in Banbhore Dr. Asma Ibrahim, Director, State Bank of Pakistan Museum & Art Gallery Department, said that the site was surveyed completely in 2011; kite-pictures were taken aimed at mapping the site intra moenia, surrounding quarters was carried out.

The next season 2012-13 comprised of excavations and further documentation, results were very interesting and raised many questions, the third season of excavations was 2013-14, Jan –Feb , the results of which are in its preliminary stages but the discoveries are amazing.

Professor Dr. Ghulam Mohiudin Veesar, Department of Archaeology, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur presented his paper on ‘Mesolithic sites in Thar Desert and its implications for human dispersal in Sindh’. He said that the evidence of early, middle and late/upper Paleolithic sites in this region shows that the favorable echo system, raw material and exploitation of natural resources were available for the people of stone-age followed by the prehistoric and post historic settlements that have been systematically documented.

Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Kalhoro, a Research Anthropologist at Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, presented his paper on ‘Stupa Images in the Rock art of Sindh’. His paper discusses the Buddhist traditions that are found in the rock art of Sindh.

Ms. Tasleem Alam Abro, who is serving as lecturer at Department of Archaeology, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur presented her paper on Surface analysis of newly discovered sites in Larkana District’.

2nd International Seminar on “Sindh Through the Centuries”(Day-2)

Technical Session-III-A

March 25, 2014

Renowned German scholar, architect, archeologist, conservationist Prof. of Urban History Mr Micheal Jansen said on Tuesday that the provincial government has approved a project for more research and excavation of Mohen Jo Daro and drilling at different places would soon start to ascertain the depth of remains of ancient city.

In his presentation at technical session III-A held on ‘Ancient Art & Architecture of Sindh’ he said the archeological site of Mohen Jo Daro is spread over one and half a kilometer but UNESCO is interested in depth of ancient remains.

German scholar was of the view that Indus river course poses threat to Mohen Jo Daro and added that before the banks of Indus River were raised during British rule here in 1870, the river water used to inundate the area eroding the remains.

He did not agree to general perception that the Stupa of Mohen Jo Daro belonged to Buddhist era. “The Buddhist Stupas are generally found far away from the urban areas while the Stupa at Mohen Jo Daro is located in urban area of the ancient city. However, it needs further research,” he said.

A study jointly conducted by a South Korean and a Pakistani scholar says there is an illustration of possible linkage between human factor of Manhattan gridiron system (City Plan) and the anthropology of Indus Valley Civilization (Mohen Jo Daro).

Presenting the paper on comparative study on gridiron planning from America to Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Amri period Mehargarh, Balochistan, at the technical session on ‘Ancient Art & Architecture of Sindh’ on second day of international seminar ‘Sindh through the Centuries’ at a local hotel on Tuesday, the scholars said archeologists and historians had been requesting the urban planners to systematically design the gridiron due to its after effects in the history. The gridiron once embedded in urban mass is difficult to revise for further change.

The paper, which intended to identify the trends over the time for anthropological living settlement patterns and chronology of compact city plan, says that gridiron pattern is fixing lines and urban frame, a water front line and fixing geometry for defining urban segments. Scholars quoted Stanislawski as saying in 1946 that the origin of the grid (type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other forming a grid) was Mohen Jo Daro. He had analyzed that the grid emerged from the tradition of Indus Valley.

The paper was co-authored by Dr. Jae Seung Park, Professor at the School of Architecture, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea and Javeria Manzoor Shaikh, PhD candidate in Healthcare Architecture at same University.

Dr. Kaleemullah Lashari, co-director, Center for Archeological & Environmental Research, in his paper on Makli, which is dubbed as largest necropolis of Islamic world and world’s epigraphic wonder, reproached that the site, protected a century ago under preservation laws and subsequently declared as the world heritage under UNESCO conventions, has unfortunately suffered a colossal neglect as it neither been studied nor maintained. He urged for full documentation and scientific conservation strategy for Makli.

According to his study, most of the inscribed graves are neither dated nor give information regarding the person buried at Makli. It has created the problem in understanding the spatial growth of the graveyard. It however is well compensated with structural classification of the Cenotaphs showing perceptible evolution in the design, he concluded.

Dr. Mastoor Fatima Bukhari, Director, Archeology & Anthropology, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur presented her paper on early historic period pottery, its history, earliest evidences, typology, designs/decoration, colors and motifs. She said that pottery provides most important information about the technologies and stylistic development of the past. The pottery has played a vital role in archeology and served as a document of important themes in human life and also a source of inspiration in the history of arts and crafts. She spoke about stamped pottery with different patterns and directly stamped on clay.

Another important paper “Tale of dying craft and identity: the saga of the Silawat Community” presented by Varda Nisar, who studied Architecture at University of Karachi, and currently is freelance editor of online magazine, highlighted the role of Silawat community in architecture of Karachi. “The Silawat, which means ‘Stone Masons’, had been the force behind buildings like KMC Building, Merewether Tower, Mohatta Palace etc, but the impact of modernization has been such that their craft, a major source of their identity, would soon diminish, remaining as only a footnote in our history,” she said.

The former Project Architect and Researcher of Karachi Heritage Building Resurvey Project, NED University, Karachi, Tania Ali Soomro readout paper on conservation practices used in Karachi for protection of architectural heritage.

Renowned urban planner Arif Hassan Khan presided over the session.

Technical Session – III-B (Sindhi language)

The critics of Sindhi short stories believe that the first original Sindhi story was ‘Hur Mukhi Ja’ (Hurs of Mukhi Lake of Sanghar) written by Lal Chand Amardinomal Jaghtiani in 1914. Thus the first Sindhi short story has completed its century in 2014, renowned Sindhi short story writer and former director, Institute of Sindhology, Jamshoro, Shoukat Hussain Shoro stated.

Presenting his paper ‘One hundred years of Sindhi Short Story’ at technical session on ‘Sindhi Language’ at second day of international seminar ‘Sindh through the Centuries,’ he discussed different periods, movements and trends of Sindhi short story during last one hundred years.

Referring to British efforts for standardization of Sindhi language, he said it was beginning of golden era in Sindhi literature, which provided impetus to Sindhi writers for writing and publishing Sindhi books related to various streams of literature. “Initially, short stories were translated into Sindhi from English and other languages. Afterwards, the Sindhi writers started writing original short stories depicting Sindhi society,” he added.

Eminent poet Mr. Ayaz Gul, who is head, Department of Sindhi language, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, presented paper with overview of Sindhi Ghazal after the partition. According to him, Sindhi Ghazal writing started during Kalhora rule in Sindh and developed to present form passing through the centuries. He highlighted the role of Sindhi poetry in raising the social issues of society including the human rights. The paper covered evolution of Sindhi Ghazal in Sindh and India in pre-and post-partition era.

Mr. Tufail Chandio, Lecturer in English, University of Sindh, Laar Campus, Badin, in his paper ‘Social dynamics of Sindh and the poignant impact of Sindhi proverbs developing massive mindset among natives’, analyzed the social fabrics of Sindhi society and impact of Sindhi proverbs or sayings, which inculcate a negative mindset leading to passivism and inaction, hence all the doors to activism, progress and development stay shut upon the natives.

Mr. Chandio referred several studies conducted on why eastern societies are less inclined to progress, social change and development as compared to the western ones.

Mr. Taj Joyo, a renowned poet and secretary, Sindhi Language Authority, presented paper on academic and literary services of Mr. G. M. Syed. He said, Saeen G. M. Syed, who is author of several books, was the person behind establishment of Sindhi Adabi Board.

Dr. Rafique Ahmed Mangrio, professor at Government Muslim College, Hyderabad and author of 25 research papers, spoke on advent of Islam in Sindh, history and geographical boundaries of Sindh before Islam etc.

Intellectual, writer, former government officer MPA Madam Mahtab Akber Rashdi in her presidential remarks said papers presented by Dr. Rafique Mangrio and Mr. Muhammad Tufail Chandio raised several questions that need to be discussed thoroughly.

Noted poet Mr. Imdad Hussaini speaking as the chief guest traced the history of verbal and written poetry. According to him the common man used to speak correct words but unfortunately the poets were making mistakes in usage of words.

Mr. Imdad Hussaini also recited his latest poem and received applause by the audience.

Later, Madam Mahtab Akber Rashdi and Vice Chancellor of SMI University Dr. Muhammad Ali Shaikh gave away shields to the scholars.

Technical Session- IV- A (History of Sindh-1)

The Mongol conquests and migrations in Sindh and other Indus borderlands in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were not only responsible for the destruction of sedentary agriculture and village life in many areas but equally led to demise or weakening of existing patterns of culture and religion.

“The destruction of culture, religion and social cohesion over two centuries of Mongol conquests and tribal migrations, in combination with pervasive nomad-ization and raiding paved the way for subsequent conversion to Islam and formation of new pir-and-shrine-centered forms of religious organization. The latter were instrumental in religious conversion as much as the restoration of a war-damaged society, the arbitration of land rights among settled and nomadic populations and community building,” said Dr. Andre Wink, Professor of History, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA, in his paper presented at technical session on ‘History of Sindh-I.’

Dr. Mathew A. Cook, another American scholar, who is Assistant Professor of Post-Colonial & South Asian Studies at North Carolina Central University, in his paper titled ‘The annexation of Sindh and socio-cultural distinctions’ said local support for the British in 1843 hinged on internal social relations among Sindh’s Hindus and attempts to challenge distinctions of status within this community. “I argue that such local distinctions give important insights into larger processes (for example the establishment of global empires).

His paper looked beyond the imperial great game and economic rationalism in the global expansion of British Empire. He focused on how Hindu merchants supported the British Empire. According to the US scholar, the British Empire provided property security and types of institutional stability that indigenous states were incapable of guaranteeing. As a result, the merchants abandoned indigenous states and shifted their support in favor of British sovereignty.

Saaz Aggarwal, an Indian writer, painter and literary critic, who had been continuously documenting aspects of Sindhi Diaspora, presented her paper titled ‘Wherever’ that focused on mass migration of Sindhi Hindus from Sindh and who settled in different parts of world.’ According to her, they migrated to such regions, which were isolated and had a unique culture; therefore they had to learn new languages, and adapted new lifestyles. The paper presented 66-year seamless efforts of Hindus of Sindh and explored possible reasons for their material success, their abandonment of culture and the reasons for which they have remained silent about their loss and trauma.

US scholar Dr. Rita P. Wright’s paper on ‘Mohen Jo Daro and Harapa: The Indus, its rivers and responses to environment chage’ was read by Ms. Nilofar Shaikh.

Humera Naz, lecturer in Department of General History, University of Karachi, readout her paper titled ‘Fateh Namah-i-Sindh alias Chach Namah: The first magnum opus of the history of Sindh’ while Dr. Abdullah Aftab Abro presented paper on ‘Historical perspective of research on Indus Script’.

Scholar and historian Dr. Hamida Khuhro presided over the session.

Technical Session IV-B (Cultural Heritage of Sindh)

Dr. Thomas Darnhardt from Ca’ Foscari University of Venice in his paper ‘Multi-Cultural Perspective’ pointed out the presence of a cross-cultural devotional cult, deeply rooted in the imagination of popular Sindhi culture in which both Hindu and Muslim devotees join in some places in Hyderabad, Thatta and Sukkur provinces of the Sindh.

He analyzed figure and cult of Amarlāl, the ‘immortal’ saint, also known as Jhulelāl, the ‘swinging child’, as it is known among Hindus and the parallel cult of Khwāja Khiḍr, the mysterious guide of those endowed with spiritual insight dear to both trans-regional Sufis and local communities.

Mukhtar Ali Durrani, an Associate Professor at the Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar presented his paper on ‘Tomb of Hamshera (sister) of Jam Fateh Khan at Makli Hill, Thatta, Sindh: History and Architecture’.

He said that the tomb of Hamsheera (sister) of Jam Fateh Khan was constructed in AD 1465. Her name is shrouded in mystery however the only one recognition as an important personality to be known in the historical and epigraphic sources is mentioned as Hamsheera Jam Fateh Khan, who remained the ruler of Sindh from AD 1413 to 1428.

Durrani stated that the tomb under study was constructed during the second half of the 15th century AD. This tomb as a whole reflects the beginning of a new style at Makli Hill necropolis that is the initiation of a perfect three-tier building architecture. In the present work, besides the historical significance and the architectural glory, the epigraphic evidences shall also be discussed at length in order to reach the conclusion.

Dr. Kamal Jamro, Chairman of the Department of Sindhi, Federal Urdu University, Karachi in his paper ‘An analysis of research on Sindhi folklore (1970-2013)’ said that folk literature is a real picture of the society. “It presents the portrait of any nation’s culture, traditions, rituals and rhythms of life. Folk poetry in particular can be thought of as a beautiful flower in a desert, which not only has an aesthetic charm but also an inimitable fragrance”, he said. According to him like other enlightened nations, Sindhi folk poetry is also very rich in thought and tune. Sindhi folk poetry has a huge impact on Sindhi society.

Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Qureshi, Assistant Professor, Department of Communication and Media Studies, University of Jamshoro presented his paper on ‘Peculiarity of vowels in Sindhi music communication’. According to him Sindhi music, basically, in its very nature is folk-oriented culture, therefore it has the distinct quality of having a huge number of vowels.

Dr Ahmad Hussain from University Of Haripur presented his paper on ‘Unfolding Nature, Vivacity and Life in Sindh Culture through the accounted Behavior among the Elites’. He said that the recognition of fundamental importance of greenery suggested a probe to be served in Sindh culture to know the deep roots it carried not only on common masses but also on privileged groups. He stated that the human society and civilization in Sindh was greatly inspired and influenced by nature including rivers, plants and animal life. This was depicted by the agricultural practices along the Indus and forests of Indus, shrines of priests on scenic sites and the historical, fossil and archeological record of civilizations and animal species.

Former Secretary Culture, Sindh Mr. Abdul Hamid Akhund in his presidential remarks said that culture of Sindh was not stagnant and resembled it with flowing water of Indus River. According to him archeological sites of Gandhara and Mehr garh were also part of Indus civilization.

TTechnical Session V-A (Belief Systems & Mythology)

The earliest archeological evidence of Swastika-shaped ornaments, a symbol of auspiciousness in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism, dates back to Indus Valley Civilization as well as the Mediterranean Classical Antiquity and Paleolithic Europe, says Esther Park, a South Korean research scholar and Secretary General, Gandhara Art & Cultural Association, also working as visiting professor at Fatima Jinnah University.

In her paper presented at technical session on ‘Belief Systems & Mythology’ she focused on Swastika-shaped ornaments found in Mohen Jo Daro and other parts of Sindh and its significance through centuries.

Esther Park said Swastika word comes from Sanskrit Svastika – ‘su’ (meaning good or auspicious) combined with ‘asti’ (meaning it is) along with diminutive suffix ‘ka’. The Swastika literally means ‘it is good’. “It is a common practice for Hindus to draw Swastika symbol on the doors and entrances to their houses during festivals, which is believed to symbolize an invitation to goddess Lakshmi.”

Michel Boivin, director of research at CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), who specializes in anthropological history of Muslim countries in South Asia, and is author of book ‘Artifacts of Devotion: A Sufi Repertoire of the Qalandaryya in Sehwah Sharif, Sindh’, presenting his paper titled ‘Somewhat of the charm of the wild flowers: Language, Literature and building of Sufi culture in colonial Sindh’ quoted John Beams, a civil servant in British India, as saying that ‘Sindhi language had got somewhat charm of the wild flowers’.

The scholar, who sought to understand the process through which a new culture was produced in colonial Sindh, said British started to standardize both the script and language. The grammars were published soon and later after the learning of Sindhi was compulsory for British officers, they were interested by the structure of the language and above all with its connections with other North Indian languages. They depicted Sindhi as rude language expressed by a rude population; he said and added that nevertheless others simultaneously tagged the Sufi poetry as ‘beautiful’.

Dr. Jurgen Schaflechner, Phd degree-holder of Heidelberg University, and Masters degree in Modern South Asian Languages & Literature, Comparative Religion & Classical Ideology with thesis ‘The Godess Hinglaj’, presented paper on ‘The Shrine of Hinglaj Devi or Bibi Nana’, and focused on how the shrine in Balochistan had been rearticulated in different time-periods to appropriate political claims. He spoke on Hinglaj’s role in the political upward mobility of certain castes and communities, foremost the Khatris; and the modern day approach in Sindhi scholarly writing.

Dr. Supriya Banik Pal, a former Associate Professor in the Department of Sanskrit at Sarat Centenary College, India, presented paper on ‘Sindhu or Sindh: A study through the Mahabharata’ exploring the rich heritage and culture of Sindh or Sindhu in the light of epic Mahabharata.

Ms Fouzia Naz, M Phil scholar at Taxila Institute of Asian Civilization, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad readout her paper on ‘Belief System of Indus Valley people based on seals’. Her paper focused on seal, sealing, tablets, figurines and plaques to find out religious traditions that kept them alive to this date.

Dr. Mohan Dev Raj, research scholar from India who is author of book ‘Shrines of Maheshvari Meghwar Saints in Sindh’, presented a paper ‘Facts about seven Mamoi Fakeers and the Shri Mamoi Dev, the great historic and spiritual personality of Sindh and Kachh’.

MNA Syeda Nafeesa Shah in her presidential address said Sindh is known for land that respects all the beliefs. “Unfortunately some of the chapters of history have been excluded from the textbooks in Pakistan and a different definition of Islam is being taught here that has promoted extremism,” she said. “Every Pakistani is targeted by the terrorists. We are fighting the war of ideology and beliefs. He described historians, writers and researchers as the warriors of history who can save Sindh and the country from terrorism.

TTechnical Session V-B (History of Sindh- II)

Scholars belonging to USA and Pakistan highlighted different aspects of history of Sindh on Tuesday, second day of the three-day international seminar ‘Sindh through the Centuries.’ Dr. Amir Ali Chandio, Professor, Department of Political Science, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur in his paper ‘Role of Sindh in Freedom Movement: An Analysis of Hur Tahreek’ said history of Sindh province is mentioned in the textbooks, and the books of the history of independence but the role of Hur Tahreek has been ignored and forgotten despite of the fact that Hur Tahreek played vital role in the freedom movement of Sub-continent.

Parveen Talpur, writer and historian from USA, whose paper on ‘Indus Seals (2600-1900 BCE) Beyond Geometry to their Socio-cultural Context’, was presented on her behalf by Javeria Shaikh, said that the first case examines the main sign which appears on a large number of seals. Possibly this sign was used for calculating angles and has given birth to a word that is widely spread in a number of languages. According to her the second case examines the object that mostly appears with the animal images. It has been interpreted in various ways, perhaps it has an astral significance as it is also substituted with the stars. Parveen was of the view that third sample examines a narrative seal that sheds some light on the ancient Indus ideology and carries hints that can be related to a few legends of Sindh. She explained that the scope of interdisciplinary approach to crack the code of Indus seals needs to be widened to accommodate bits and pieces of information from a wide variety of sources along with the conventional sources, for these will eventually help in the reconstruction of the greater story of Indus Civilization.

Ms Zahida Rehman Jatt, Monitoring Officer, Rural Support Program Networks, Islamabad, presented her paper on ‘Role of contributions of Sindhi Hindus in socio-economic and cultural life of Hyderabad, Sindh: 1800-1947. Sindhi Hindus worked in every sphere of life in pre-partitioned Hyderabad ranging from art and architecture, philanthropy, education, and politics. She said that some of the landmarks of that time like schools, teachers training institutes and public buildings are still standing today as testimony to the dexterity and passion of their builders.

Dr Shuja Ahmad, faculty member of Pakistan study Centre, University of Sindh, Jamshooro in his paper ‘Struggle for separation of Sindh from Bombay Presidency (1847-1936)’ said that the struggle for separation of Sindh from the Bombay played a significant role in creating political awareness in Sindh.

He said that the positive impact of this movement was an active participation of Sindhis which enabled them to train themselves in politics and it proved to be the primary institution of political leadership. He said that the opportunities for progress were even greater in Sindh than in other parts of India but the exploitation of resources was hampered by lack of funds because of the negligence by the Bombay Presidency.

Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Shah, Assistant Professor at Department of English, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur presented his research paper on ‘Bilingual English Sindhi Dictionary’. He stated that the dictionaries are essentially good and carry many merits but in one aspect or in another. According to him not a single dictionary can be categorized and found on the sound principles of modern Lexicography. “A user-friendly dictionary based on the needs and requirements of learners and perfect in all aspects is still to come,” he opined. Mr. Noor Ahmed Janjhi, Assistant Professor, Government Boys Degree College Mithi, Tharpakar in his paper “War of Independence in Parkar” revealed many aspects of patriotism, war strategy and human behavior.

Mr. Muhammad Moazzam Khan from WWF presented his paper on ‘Fishery Industry of Sindh through Ages’. He said that Fisheries industry possibly developed into an organized industry during Harappa Civilization, while an organized pearl extraction industry based on window-pane oyster existed during the Talpur dynasty.

Renowned historian Dr. Mubarak Ali in his presidential remarks said that the real history of world is that of common man and masses while the history of Elites is written by force and cannot be described as peoples’ history. “What the people, a common man, a shopkeeper, trader etc writes today is real source of history in future,” he added. He viewed that more and more in-depth research is required on Sindh using modern technology.

Report of 3 Day 2nd International Seminar on “Sindh Through the Centuries” (Day Three: Last Day)

Technical Session –VI(Sindhi Language and Literature )

March 26, 2014

Sindhi language has got some peculiar linguistic features, which are not available in other modern languages of Indo-Pak subcontinent. Noticing this, European scholars and linguists have highly praised linguistic structure of Sindhi language, said Dr. Murlidhar Kisshinchand Jetley, a linguistic scholar from India.

Speaking as chief guest at technical session VI held on ‘Sindhi language and Literature’ on last day of International Seminar ‘Sindh through the Centuries,’ he quoted Captain George Stack who wrote in the introduction of his book ‘Grammar of Sindhi Language’ published in 1849 that Sindhi has more interesting dialects than many of other Indian languages’ dialects. He also quoted Ernest Trumpp who also had expressed almost same opinion on linguistic peculiarities of Sindhi language in the introduction of his ‘Grammar of Sindhi language’ in 1872.

Dr. Jetley, vice chairman of Sindhi Academy of Dehli and former professor of Dehli University, said they were striving hard to keep alive Sindhi language in India. “Young generation of Sindhis in India takes interest only in English medium, as their parents wanted them to be officers. The result is that the number of Sindhi speaking youths is on decline. In view of such a situation we have started summer workshops to teach the youth Sindhi language,” he told adding that results are encouraging as the kids now urge parents for speaking in Sindhi.

Another writer from India, Kailash Shaadaab in his paper on ‘Humanism in classical Sindhi poetry’ said much before Europeans learned the lesson of humanism, it was the of Eastern culture. “All the classical poetry of Indian subcontinent in general and that of Sindh in particular are replete with spirit of Humanism.” He said classical poets of Sindh such as Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai, Sachal Sarmast and others had devoted them to the spread of humanism. “In modern globalised and democratic world, the humanism has come to be recognized as one of the most respected values. The classical poets of Sindh had realized the importance of humanism many centuries ago. They considered yeoman service as the greatest duty towards divine.”

Dr. Vinod H. Asudani, a researcher, poet, psychologist and scholar from India, in his paper titled ‘Expression of Image of Sindh’ spoke on how the Sindhi writers and poets artistically and aesthetically depicted image of motherland. He especially mentioned the works of Sindhi writers and poets who had to migrate from Sindh as a result of partition in 1947.

Dr Vinod said the artistic expression is not only confined to the notion of nostalgia but it takes into its fold the history, geography, mythology, culture and many other dimensions of Sindh as well. “In fact, Sindh is reflected as dynamic and fascinating organism in literature,” he added.

Dr. Fahmida Hussain, renowned scholar and chairperson, Sindhi Language Authority, in her paper titled ‘Socio-linguistic analysis of Sindhi society’, shed light on gender-based discrimination in our society and contended that from a socio-linguistic perspective, inequality and injustice in the society is also manifested as linguistic discrimination in the use of language. “From the perspective of feminism, there are two aspects worth considering. Firstly, to identify difference in language between men and women on the basis of social status and as such differences that exist in the language used by men and women to assert themselves,” Dr. Fahmida said. According to her, in some cultures women are prohibited to express themselves in public with self-confidence and are even forbidden to raise voice.

Dr. Kamla Goklani, another scholar from India holding degree of doctorate in Sindhi, presented paper titled ‘Comparative study of West Rajasthani and Sindhi Language’ and highlighted similarity in Sindhi and Rajasthani language. According to her there are several words, phrases, verbs, proverbs and names of body parts that are similar in both languages. Dr. Kamla said she found 70 Marwari words, verbs, proverbs, phrases and names of body parts similar to Sindhi. She told that facility for PhD degree in Sindhi language is available in Delhi and Pune however they are striving to get such facility in Rajasthan too, where jobs are preferably offered to those who know the local languages.

Mr. Gul Muhammad Umrani of Dr. N. A. Baloch Foundation, spoke on ‘Mirza Kalich Beg’s World of Art & Literature’ while Prof. Qalandar Shah Lakiari presented paper on ‘Letters, Phonemes and Pronunciation’. Prof. Salim Memon read out his paper based on book review of Pir Ali Muhammad Rashdi.

Technical Session – VII (Economy of Sindh)

An Indian economist Ms. Suman Sonkar said on Wednesday that Sindh has potential to become an important trade route between South Asia and Central Asia, while provincial advisor for finance Syed Murad Ali Shah also suggested improving Khokhrapar route between India and Pakistan that ultimately would benefit the economy of Sindh.

“What we need is to promote trade activities with India through Khokhrapar route. For this we should improve facilities at Khokhrapar on Pakistan side where presently we do not have even shelter from sunlight at immigration counters,” he said comparing the best available facilities on Indian side.

Addressing the technical session VII on ‘Economy of Sindh’ at the International Seminar ‘Sindh through Centuries’ on last day of the event, Syed Murad Ali Shah said, “This route suits more for promotion of trade between two countries because Pakistan has large border with India and Karachi port is much closer to it than other ports of Pakistan.”

Murad Ali Shah apprised audience about government efforts aimed at alleviating the poverty in Sindh however added that despite all the efforts no remarkable results could be achieved in this regard. About the Benazir Bhutto Income Support Program, he told that no disbursement could be done since last year and hardly fifty percent of allocated amount of Rs.12 billion have been disbursed so far. Talking about agriculture economy of the province, he expressed apprehension about water shortage in future in Sindh. Earlier, presenting her paper, Indian scholar Ms. Suman Sonkar said, “Pakistan provides an opportunity for Central Asian countries to diversify their international connections and to reduce the distance and the number of borders to be crossed to reach international maritime transportation hubs. For instance, the Central Asia-Afghanistan-Pakistan (Karachi Port) road corridor would provide potentially one of the cheapest and probably the quickest routes to Central Asia.”

In her paper titled ‘Revival of new Silk Route through Sindh’ Ms. Suman, the professor of economics at Lakshmibai College, University of Delhi, said, “Pakistan refers Sindh province as the gateway to Central Asia and strongly believes that the good relations with region would not only enhance its security but also provide enormous economic opportunities.” Highlighting the existing overland silk transport corridor between Pakistan and China, she explored the possible options to enhance the transport linkages from port of Karachi through Karakoram Highway and further to Central Asian region and even to Khartoum. “The study of the trade route will help in the development of the entire region,” she added.

Indian scholar said it is the ancient passage that has connected the civilizations and thus promoted the multi-interchange between East and West. “This ancient route not only circulated goods but also exchanged the splendid cultures of China, India, Pakistan, Persia, Greek and Rome.”

According to her Sindh has the potential to become an important transit route between South Asia and Central Asia. Hiro Thakur, another eminent scholar from India, speaking about courageous cattle traders and seafarers of ancient Sindh, said Rig Veda, the oldest composition which came into being in the first half of first Millennium BC, was composed on the banks of River Indus. He said Rig Veda suggests that the Punis were inhabitants of ancient Sindh and known as valiant, wealthy people who used to process enormous wealth of cows and horses. They were traders and eminent seafarers, he added.

Dr. Hari Lohano, University of West of England, speaking on Poverty Dynamics in Rural Sindh, suggested that policies to mitigate shocks in farming, enhancing sustainable growth in the agriculture sector, and improving non-farm employment opportunities in rural Sindh would reduce chronic poverty, prevent descent into poverty and allow escape from poverty in Sindh.

Mr. Ishtiaq Ansari of Sindh Heritage Cell, Hyderabad spoke on ecotourism in Sindh with special reference to Gorakh Hill Station and other resorts of the province, while Dr. Iqbal Panwar’s paper shed light on agro-economic response to climate change in Sindh and Dr. Faisal Hussain presented analytical study on vegetation in Sindh.

Concluding Session

Dr. Ishrat Hussain, head, Institute of Business Administration, and former Governor, State Bank of Pakistan, in his concluding keynote address said on Wednesday, March 26, 2014 (the last day of the International Seminar) said that economic development in Sindh is not possible without improving law and order situation and bridging the gap between rural and urban areas. “The development efforts should be focused more on rural areas so that they could be brought at par to urban areas.” “Sindh possesses abundant economic resources but what we need is to utilize them properly,” he viewed.

He said the 54 percent of country’s economy depends on Karachi port while the agriculture had 23 to 24 percent share in economy but it declined to 17 percent due to neglect. He further stated that country’s youth is in dire need of employment but unfortunately manufacturing sector has failed to create jobs and it is only the services sector that offers jobs.

Dr. Ishrat Hussain while describing Thar Coal Field as largest source of energy having vast potential, said, “We had been listening about Thar Coal since last 15 years but such a big source of energy has not yet been developed.” “The indigenous resources are always utilized by the nations in case of crisis but the case here is contrary to it.” Elaborating the urban and rural divide, Dr. Ishrat Hussain cited example of difference in literacy rate. “The literacy rate in Pakistan is said to be 59 percent while it is 75 percent in urban and only 42 percent in rural areas. The gender-wise literacy figures show further difference as female literacy rate in rural areas is only 22 percent while it is 68 percent in urban areas.”

Dr. Ishrat Hussain said the rural areas have big role in economy but unfortunately they have very less purchasing power. He also spoke of dearth of healthcare facilities in rural areas.

Dr. Hamida Khuhro, Convenor, Organizing Committee of the International Seminar, offered thanks to the foreign delegates and participants and gave overview of the three day proceedings of event. She praised the efforts of scholars and hoped their papers would help planners and future researchers. She also praised the efforts of Vice Chancellor of SMI University Dr Muhammad Ali Shaikh for organized such mega event. Vice Chancellor, Sindh Madressatul Islam University, Dr. Muhammad Ali Shaikh in his concluding remarks supported the point of view expressed by Syed Murad Ali Shah, Advisor to the Sindh Chief Minister for Finance that trade through the Khokhrapar route should be restored at the earliest. “What is harm in it”, he said adding that restoration of the Khokhrapar trade will not only boost trade in Sindh but also improve economy of the country.

On the occasion he announced establishing an institute on Sindh studies at the SMI university. The institute will award doctorate degrees in arts, culture, history, language, economy and other aspects of Sindh. At the same time he assured to organize another seminar on Sindh saying that this time we will not wait for another 39 years.

Earlier the standing ovation was given to Dr Murlidhar Jetley, a noted scholar, on his remarkable work on Sindhi language and Dr Muhammad Ali Shaikh, Vice Chancellor of SMI University on his marvelous efforts to organize a memorable International Seminar on Sindh Through the Centuries.

Copyright© 2012 – 2013: Sindh Madressatul Islam University. All Rights reserved.

Posted by: Devi Nangrani | مَي 21, 2014

Sawaal Ki Talash Mein-Vimmi S

Vimmi   Vimmi  B   Devi

वाल की तलाश मेंजो अपने घरों से निकले,

ख़ामोशी इक जवाब मिला उनको

कविता, संवेदनशील हृदय की उपज होती है जिसका श्रंगार करती है रसात्मकता एवं लयात्मकता। व्यक्तिगत अनुभूतियों के साथ सामाजिक जीवन का यथार्थ मिलकर श्रेष्ठ कविता को साकार करता है। जिस तरह गहरे पानी में फेंका गया कंकर हलचल का सिलसिला शुरू करता है, वैसे ही समाज में, अपने आसपास की कुनीतियों से पीड़ित होकर जन-मानव जीवन की विसंगतियों से हार मान बैठे हैं, जबकि एक नन्हा दीपक घनघोर अंधेरे को पराजय नहीं मानता। यहां मुझे शाहिद नदीम का यह शेर याद आ रहा है –

तिरे खयालों की किरणों से जु़ल्मतें कम हों,

तिरे वक़ार से दुनिया में खुशबुएँ फैलें

          डा. कृष्ण पांडेय अपने शोध संस्करण ‘प्रेमचंद, विचारधारा और साहित्य’ में लिखते हैं – ‘लेखक का व्यक्तिगत जीवन उसकी विचार प्रतिक्रिया का निर्माण हेतु होता है’. सच ही तो है, परिपक्व मन की परिभाषा में भीतर की हलचल को बाहर के शोर में अभिव्यक्त करने वाली लेखिका विम्मी सदारंगाणी ने भी अपनी इस नवीनतम कृति ‘सवाल की तलाश में’ अपनी निशब्द सोच को शब्दों के सहारे अभिव्यक्त करते हुए लिखा है –

‘कविता नहीं है यह / बाहर जो आता है / वह कविता नहीं / बाहर आते हैं शब्द / कविता भीतर ही जी रही होती है।’

कविता अंदर से बाहर की ओर बहने वाला निर्झर झरना है जिसकी प्रमुखता और प्रखरता करीने से सजाए हुए शब्दों से आती है। मन के सागर में जब अहसास की लहरें हलचल मचाती हैं तब भावविभोर होकर अपने मनोभावों को टटोलते हुए, अपने वजूद की तलाष में कवियत्री यह महसूस करती है कि वह ज़िंदा है, तब तक,जब तक ज़मीर सौदागरों की चैखटों पर गिरवी नहीं रखा गया हो, तब तक वह धड़कता है, सांस लेता है और जि़ंदा रहता है। आइये, उनकी इस बानगी में झांकें, और उनके कथन की सच्चाई को टटोलें, जब वह लिखती हैं,

            रास्ते पर दौड़ती गिलहरी को देखकर वह ब्रेक लगाती है

            अपनी किताबों के बीच चिड़िया को घर सजाने देती है

            कुत्ते के पिल्ले की कूं कूं सुनकर दौड़ती हुई उस दिशा में जाती है –

तब उसे लगता है कि कोई उसके अंदर जि़ंदा है, सांस ले रहा है, फिर उसका मन अपने अनुभव की सीमा को यथार्थ से जोड़ता है –

            तब महसूस होता है / मेरे अंदर कोई जि़ंदा है

            तब मन मानता है / कि मेरे अंदर कोई सांस ले रहा है

            तब भरोसा होता है / कि मैं जि़ंदा हूं।

यहां काव्य स्वरूप और सुंदरता एकाकार हुई है। शब्द और अर्थ भी उसी दायरे में यूं लग रहे हैं जैसे कवियत्री ने अर्थ ही प्रकट किये हैं। यह पाठक के मन में धंसती हुई बेलौस अभिव्यक्ति है जिसके लिए विम्मी जी को साधुवाद! बच्चन जी का कथन कि, ‘कवि समाज का पथ प्रदर्शक होता है’। सच के सामने आईना है यह अभिव्यक्ति। बड़ा कलाकार वही होता है जो कला पर हावी हो, विम्मी जी उसी राह की पथिक हैं इसमें कोई दो राय नहीं।

            आज की कृत्रिम दुनिया में हर जगह समझौते हुए जा रहे हैं। जहां सच का गला घोंटा जा रहा है, वहीं फरेबों की साज़िश दिल और दिमाग़ में तक़रार बरक़रार रखती है। सांसों की घुटन को महसूस करते हुए कवियत्री का अंदाजे़-बयां सुनिए –

‘मैंने तो तुमसे कुछ भी नहीं पूछा

बस, सिमट गई तुम्हारी बाहों में

तुम्हारा कसता आलिंगन

मैंने समझा प्यार तुम्हारा

पता ही नहीं चला

कब मेरा दम घुट गया!’

रिश्तों की नींव जब आसपास की गर्दिशों से जूझकर खोखली होती है, हिलने लगती है तो मानव मन अपनी ही यादों के आकाश में उड़ते-उड़ते थका सा, किसी ‘अपने’ के स्नेह का आंचल ओढ़ लेता है; फिर चाहे वह ममता का हो, अपनी ही औलाद की मुस्कराहट का गलीचा हो, वह अपने कोमल, नर्म स्पर्श से हर ज़ख़्म का मरहम बन जाता है। शायद इसीलिए विम्मी जी ने लिखा है –

                        ‘अपनी मासूम मुस्कराहट का एक हिस्सा

                        मुझे दे देती थी वह।’

मन की परतों में एक और भी नगरी है, जहां यह मन कभी व्याकुल होकर, कभी व्यथा की छटपटाहट से समाधान पाने की चाह में कुछ पल उसी छांव में बिता देता है, जहां सच और झूठ का अंतर मिट जाता है। आईना और अक़्स आमने सामने होते हैं। बबूल के कांटे भी कवि की नज़र से नहीं छुपते। किसी ने खूब कहा है – ‘जहां न पहुंचे रवि, वहां पहुंचे कवि’।  विम्मी की पैनी नज़र समीक्षक बनकर सच और झूठ के अंतर की दुविधाजनक स्थिति का पर्दाफ़ाश करती है, हर आवरण को बेनक़ाब करती है। उसकी गहरी दृष्टि मंथनोपरांत सोच को शब्दों में यूँ सामने ले आई है. –

            ‘बेल / बबूल पर छा गई है

            बबूल के कांटे / छिप गए हैं।’

आज के इस वर्तमान दौर में करूणा, संवेदना, भावकुता, अपनापन, सब लुप्त हो गया है, स्वार्थ ही स्वार्थ डेरा डाले बैठा है। यहां कवियत्री अपनी भेदती नज़र से, सादगी से सजी शातिरता को भी पछाड़ देती है और अपनी बानगी से छुपे हुए गुनाह को बेनक़ाब करते हुए लिखती है –

            तुमने / गुलाब तोड़ लिया / और

            उसका  नाम मोगरा रख दिया /

            अब पूछते हो /

            तुमने क्या गुनाह किया! /

            निराशा की ज़मीन पर आशाओं के बीज बोना, सत्य के दायरे में असत्य के बीज उकेरने वाली सिन्धी और हिन्दी की बहुभाषी प्रतिभा की कलमकार विम्मी सदारंगाणी, अमन और चैन का स्वर्ण संदेश लेकर उम्मीदों की किरणों से हर जात-पात के भेदभाव को भेदते हुए कहती है –

            शांति आएगी एक दिन / और वह होगी आखि़री शांति।

            बस, एक बात कहनी है आपसे

            मुझे मरने मत देना / मैं ही हूं आपकी आखि़री उम्मीद।

            ऐसी मुबारक उम्मीदों के चराग़ों को रोशन रखने वाली कवियत्री को मेरी बधाई और शुभकामनाएं।

समीक्षक: देवी नागरानी

९.डी॰  कॉर्नर व्यू सोसाइटीए १५ध् ३३ रोडए बांद्रा ए मुंबई ४०००५०,फ़ोन 9987938358/

काव्य संग्रह: सवाल की तलाश में,लेखिका: विम्मी सदारंगानी  पन्ने.112,मूल्य रु॰ १५०,प्रकाशकः विभा प्रकाशन




Posted by: Devi Nangrani | مَي 21, 2014

Lokarpan Of Pahinji Dharti

13. P Dharti    13. Pahinji Dharti

April 12, 2014 Was celebrated as a SINDHI DIWAS on the dias of Chandibai Himmatlal Mansukhani college followed by the kavya Goshti. On the auspicious occasion was the book release of Devi Nangrani’s Book “APNI DHARTI” .(A collection of 15 translated stories from Hindi To Arabic Sindhi-Preface by Hundraj Balwani and My View-By Dr. Arjan Chawla). The Sindhi Diwas celebration started at 11 a.m and continued till 3.00 pm. in the presence of the Founder member shri Kishu Mansukhani, Shri Nirmal Gokhlani (President NCPSL) the well known sindhi Laureete- Dayal Asha (President, sindhi Academy-Maharashta), Dr. Manju Nicchani- (Principal, KC College), Smt. Kala Prakash-(an eminent story writer), Asha Chand-(Sindhi Sangat), Ashok Kamdar, Smt Meena Roopchandani, and the coordinator and sanchalak of the programme-Dr. Sandhya Kundnani. The positive ideas for the upliftment of the sindhi Language were shared by all the chief guests in the Picture .

Among the participants of the Poetry recitation that we present were, shri Narayan Bharati (Ulhasnagar), shri Goverdhan Sharma Ghayal (Poona), Shri jetho Lalwani (Ahmedabad) Shri Nirmal Goplani(Delhi), Laxman Dubey (Mumbai), Devi Nangrani (Mumbai), Asha Chand (Dubai) shri Holaram Hans, shri Gyanchandani, and smt sandhya Kundnani…Daya Lakhi and others.

The hall was full with keen listeners, the programmme  ended with the vote of Thanks followed by Lunch. ..Jai Hind, Jai Sindh

Devi Nangrani


Posted by: Devi Nangrani | مَي 21, 2014

Akhar Katha-Nand Zaveri

oslo 2011 - Copy  Nand-Akhar   Nand Zaveri

”اکر ڪٿا“

پنهنجي گذريل ڪَلَ جي تجُربن جي بُنيادَ تي اڄُ جو نِرماڻُ

زندگي هڪ سندر ڪويتا آهي، پر ڪويتا زندگي ناهي. مانوتا جي دهليز تي دَستڪُ ڏيندڙُ ڀاوَ- ڀِنلن ……. شبدن جو سموهُ جڏهن پاٺڪ کي پڙهڻ بعد سوچڻ تي مجبور ڪري ته سچ ڪري ڄاڻجي ته شايد رچنا جو وجود ۾ اچڻ جو اهوئي اُهو ’ڪارڻ‘ آهي جو شبد کي ارٿ ڏيڻ ۾ پريپورڻ ….. آهي.

ادب جي ڪهڙي به صنف هجي اُها ليکڪ جي قلم جي تيورن ۽ طاقت سان پنهنجو پريچيه …….. خود پاڻ ئي ڏيندو آهي. آچاريه رامچندر شڪل جو چوڻ آهي ته ”ناد سوندريه سان ڪويتا جي عمر وڌنڌي آهي.“ ڀارتيه آچاريه ممٽ پڻ لکيو آهي ته ”اهڙي شبد ۽ ارٿ کي ڪويتا ٿو چئجي، جنهن ۾ دوش نه هجن، گڻ ۽ النڪار هجن، ڪڏهن ڪڏهن نه به هجن“ ڪُلُ ملائي ڪنهن دلڪش جذبي يا خيال جو دلڪش اِظهارُ ’ڪويتا‘ آهي.“

اهڙين ڪويتائن جو سنگره ’اکر ڪٿا‘ جي روپ ۾ منجري عام تي آڻڻ جو سڦل پرياس ڪيو آهي شري نند جويريءَ ؛  جن جي رچناتمڪ اورجا ……. سان واقف ٿيندي، پد – پد مان اُنهن جي شخصيت جي قد سان پاٺڪ روبرو ٿو ٿئي.

نٿو ڄاڻان مان / ڪنهنجو انش آهي

هيءُ شبد جو جنڪ / نشبد

شايد ڇايا آهي / اُن جي

جنهن اَنام کي / نانءُ ڏنو آهي

(ص. 23 تي)

اکر اکر ۾ ماٺ جي جهنڪار ٻڌڻ ۾ ٿي اچي. ان ماٺ کي شبد روپي ارٿ ڏيئي انتر من جي احساسن کياڀيويڪت ….. ڪيو آهي. ڪٿي ڪٿي ته شبد ۽ ارٿ ايتري قدر ايڪاڪار ٿي سامهون ٿا اچن جو پڙهڻ سان اهو آڀاس ٿو ٿئي ته رچناڪار اَرٿُ هي لکيو آهي. جويري صاحب جي سوچ شبدن ۾ پاڻ کي پڌرو ڪري پاڻ کي پنهنجي وشواس ۽ اوشواس جي چڪروهيو ۾ جڪڙڻ لاءِ شبدن جو ڄار وِڇايو آهي.

جڏهن اَرٿُ / اَرٿَ هيڻ ٿي پوي ٿو

اِڪَ اَرٿي شبدُ / ٻهو اَرٿي نشبدُ ٿي پوي ٿو

سگڻُ شبدُ / نرگڻ نشبدُ ٿي پوي ٿو

مورتَ اَمورتَ ٿي پوي ٿي / اَپاترُ سُپاترُ ٿي پوي ٿو

جڏهن اَرٿُ / اَرٿَ هيڻ ٿي پوي ٿو (ص. 18 تي)

من جي وشواس جا سروپ سامهون ٿا اچن، ڪٿي سچ ڪوڙ جو آڀاس ٿو جڳائي ته ڪٿي ڪوڙ سچ جو. ڪٿي ڀرم حقيقت ٿو لڳڻ  لڳي ته ڪٿي حقيقت ڀرم !!

شبد ڪوشل جو وستارُ اڻ چيل احساس جي ترجماني ڪرڻ ۾ پهل ڪري رهيو آهي. ڪويه ۽ شلپ ۾ به هڪ هيرت ۾ وجهندڙ وِوِڌتا ته آهي، ساڻ اُن جي هڪ ڪلاتمڪ اظهار جو انوٺو ڍنگ به آهي جو ڌيان ڇڪائڻ ۾ ڪامياب ٿو رهي. هن بانگيءَ ۾ اظهار جا تيور ڏسو ۽ پرکيو:

جو ڪجهه هن چيو / ۽ جو ڪجهه هن ڪيو

سڀ پنن ۾ موجود آهي

جو ڪجهه هن ڪونه چيو / يا ڪونه چئي به چيو

اُهو ڪٿي آهي (ص.86 تي)

ويچار ۽ ڀاشا جي هن سنتلت ميل ميلاپ ۾ آڪرشڻ آهي. اکرن جو رکُ رکاوُ من کي سروبار ٿو ڪري. هنن ڪويتائن جي وشيشتا اسان کي ليکڪ جي پرتيڀا جو پريچيه ڏيڻ ۾ اَڳري آهي.

رچناڪار جي شاعريءَ ۾ (ڪويتائن ۾) هڪ احساس آهي جو ايڪانت جي سيني ۾ پيو ڌرڪي، ۽ جڏهن ماٺ ڳالهائيندي آهي ته ٻڌڻ ۾ ايندو آهي هڪ شبنمي ترنمُ، ڄڻ ته جهيل مان ڪَل ڪَل ڪري وهندڙ جل جي سنگيت جي جهنڪار ٿو بڻجي پوي، اُها مٺي ڪوئل جي ڪوڪ ڄڻ ته پرتي کان اُجهلي آتما جي سوجهري ۾ وڃندڙ هڪ بانسري. پاٺڪ لاءِ هيءُ رچنائون ريگستان ۾ پاڻيءَ جي ٿڌائڻ ڏيڻ جو هڪ وسيلو آهن.

ڪوين جو سرمور مها ڪي هريشنڪر آڌيش سواتهه سُکار ڪوي هو. اُنهن جو لکيل رچنائون جيون جي سارٿڪتا ۽ سچ جو ڌرشن ڪرائڻ ۾ پري پورڻ آهن. لکيل آهي :

ڪويتا ئي منهنجو جيون آهي

منهنجو جيون ئي ڪويتا آهي

مان ڪويتا جي پريڀاشا آهيان.

ليکن جو ويڪتيگت جيون تجربن جي واٽن تي هلندي هلندي نت نئين نشبد سوچ سان اڳتي هلندي هلندي شبدن جو سهارو وٺي جڏهن پنهنجو پاڻ کي پڌرو ڪندو آهي تڏهن اُها ڪويتا بڻجي پوندي آهي. شبدن جي پرويوڳ جي بي مثالي هن رچنا مان پئي ليئا پائي:

ڪوئي نشان ناهي / پانڌيءَ جي کنيل قدم جو

پر پوءِ به / نشبد مان / شبدن جو هيءُ جوڙ

ڪيترن جي / راهه پئي رهيو آهي

ڪيترن بنا قدم کڻڻ جي / اِتان

پنهنجي پنهنجي منزل / پئي پاتي آهي. (ص. 41 تي)

”نٿو ڄاڻا مان، ڪنهنجو انش آهي.“ چوڻ وارو، لکڻ وارو اديب نند جويري شبدن جي هن ءول ءلئيآن ۾ جهڪڙجي، اُن ڄار ۾ا ڇٽڪارو پائڻ جي تمنا ۾ ڪويتا جي پريڀاشا ڪندي لکي ٿو :

شروعات ۾ / جڏهن هو اَنامُ هُئو

ته هو سَڀَ سان سَڀُ هُئو / پر جيئن ئي

هن اَنام کي نانءُ مليو

ته هو اَنامُ / کنڊُ کنڊُ ٿي ويو (ص. 27 تي)

رچنا کي مڪتي تڏهن ملندي آهي، جڏهن هوءَ ڪويءَ جي دل دهليز پار ڪري پاٺڪ جي چؤکٽ تي، اچي ساه پٽي، جنهن ڀاشا جي تورن ۾ تازگيءَ سان گڏ هڪ دِشا پڻ هجي، جا ڪلپنا هوندي به سچ جو آڀاس ڏي. اهڙيءَ ئي هڪ دَشا ۽ دِشا تي پستڪ جي آغازي پنن ۾ اديب شري لڇمڻ ڀاٽيا ڪومل لکيو آهي ـــ ” هن دؤر جو آواز گذري ويل دؤر جوسڏ ۽ پراڏو ئي ناهي، پر اُن سڏ ۽ پراڏي جي گوج کي پنهنجي اندر سمائي هڪ نئون آواز بڻجي اُڀري ٿو. اتي منهنجي ماٺ به نشبد ٿي ويئي آهي!!

اُها ماٺ جا شبد جو ارٿ بڻجي مانوَ من ۾ ڌنيءَ جو پراڏو بڻجي پوي، اُن اڻ چيل احساس جي گهرائين ۾ اُهو سچ پائڻو آهي،  جو هڪ هڪ جي اندر فقط هن خُد لاءِ پوريل آهي. پاڻ سان ملڻو آهي، انهيءَ سچ سان ساکياتڪار ڪرڻو آهي. آئيني ۽ عڪس کي هڪ ٿيڻو آهي. پر پرشاٿ ڪرڻو آهي، جو

سچ ڪوڙ جو ٻج بڻي / سچ ڪوڙ جي ڪُکَ بڻي

نرجيو ديوار بيٺي آهي / تنهنجي منهنجي سچ ڪوڙَ کي

ڪُلهو ڏيندي / نرجيو ديوار بيٺي آهي. (ص. 117 تي)

اهڙن سهڻن احساسن کي سليڪي سان قلم بند ڪرڻ لاءِ نند جويريءَ کي شڀ ڪامنائون.  ــــــ ديوي ناگراڻي

Posted by: Devi Nangrani | نومبر 14, 2013

हिन्दी-उर्दू कवि सम्मेलन

27 Janसंकल्प वेलफ़ैयर असोशिएशन द्वरा आयोजित विशाल हिन्दी-उर्दू कवि सम्मेलन, संस्था के अध्यक्ष डॉ॰ जी एल करनानी की उपस्थिति में, २७ जनवरी २०१३ की शाम को  नवी मुंबई आर्ट फेस्टिवल at urban Hatt (ampitheater) बेलापुर में एक सुहानी शाम का समा बांधने में कामयाब रहा। इसमें शिरकत करने वाले हिन्दी और उर्दू के कवि, शायर मिली जुली गंगो-जमन की काव्य सरिता को 6-9 बजे तक कलकल प्रवाहित करते रहे। 27 Jan- Artश्री अनंत श्रीमाली के सशक्त संचालन में इतनी शिद्दत रही कि आर्ट फेस्टिवल के कई सेक्टर्स से लोगों का हुजूम आवाज़ पर बंधा चला आया और काव्य का रसपान करता रहा। काव्य में शामिल था हास्य, व्यंग, प्रेम गीत, तीखे  तेवरों में डूबी रचनाएँ! शिरकत करने वाले रहे –दायें से बाएँ राजेश टैगोर, मीनू मदान, डॉ॰ लक्ष्मण शर्मा वाहिद, ख़न्ना मुज़फ्फ़पुरी,  श्रीमती देवी नागरानी, श्रुति संवाद के अध्यक्ष श्री अरविंद राही, संस्था के अध्यक्ष श्री जी एल करनानी, प्रमिला शर्मा, अनंत श्रीमाली, प्रतीक दवे और दिलशाद सिद्दीकी। माहौल में मधहोशी के साथ सुरूर शामिल रहा। करनानी जी ने सभी शायरों का पुष्प गुच्छ से अभिनंदन व धन्यवाद किया। और अंत में खाने का उतम प्रबंध रहा। जयहिंद

देवी नागरानी

Posted by: Devi Nangrani | جُون 15, 2013

Lokarpan Of Baarish Ji Dua

12. Vimochan    12. Baarish Ji Dua - 2012

On 9th June 2013 In SeeetaSindhuBhavan

—NariSawlani, —ThakurChawala, —Vasudev Sindhu Bharti, —ParuChawla, —Devi

Nangrani, —SangeetaSahajwani



Posted by: Devi Nangrani | اپريل 5, 2013

Lokarpan Of Aur Main Badi ho Gayi

11. Vimochan       11. Aur mai badhi-2012

—In Gandhi Pratishthan-13 March 2013

——Acharya DhirendraTripathi, —Devi Nangrani, —Dr. Bharatendu Srivastav,

Dr. —Kamal Kishore Goyanka, —Dr. Ajay Chaudhry

and —Dr. Atul Jain


10-Ap Jaipur  (6)

—on 30 Ap.2013 In Rajasthan Sindhi Academy-Jaipur

—Laxman Bhambhani, —Naresh Chandnani, —Devi Nangrani, —A writer ,

—Deepchand Tanwani







Posted by: Devi Nangrani | نومبر 2, 2012

Lokarpan Of Bhajan Mahima

9. Bhajan Mahima-2012  9. Bhajam Mahima-2012 

In Raipur-28 Oct 2012

—By: Sai Yudhishtar Lal —Sant Shiromani, —Devi Nangrani, —Tekchand Mast

—Kamala Gokhalani, —Advocate Hirani



Posted by: Devi Nangrani | آڪٽوبر 10, 2012

Lokarpan Of Ghazal-

10. Ghazal -Vimochan-2012   10. Ghazal-2012

—Lokarpan In Poona on 15 Sep 2012

—Premchand Lal Sharma, —Rita Shahani, —Devi Nangrani, —RukminiChainani

—Tara Mirchandani, —Goverdhan Sharma Ghayal

10. Seeta S Bhavan      10. Vimochan -sept  2012 Poona

On oct 2012 in SeetasindhuBhavan

—KantaIsrani, —ShobhaLalchandani, —Devi Nangrani, —ThakurChawla, —ParuChawla

—Manoj Kumar-(singer), Khushalani




Posted by: Devi Nangrani | مارچ 10, 2012


Jetho lalwani, kajal, Dadi, Shyam Kumar, Devi

How does one go about translating a poet’s selected ‘creations’ in letter & spirit? This task really poses enormous problems. How could poetic genius be reproduced in translation? How could a translator assimilate all the experience that had influenced poet? How could a translator assimilate all the experiences that had influenced the poet? How could a translator establish affinity of work in ‘one go’ with the ‘world without’? How could one find a voice and vocabulary to the poet’s inner realms? It is very difficult, if not impossible, to enter into the strange, sometimes, fenced world of a poet. It is quite possible that both, poet and translator, may have shared some common thoughts, musings inklings at some ‘time and place’ hence this marvelous poetic rendering in an alien language. Noonari has tackled poems persuasively. He has truly made Taj Baloch his own. From his enviable translation filters an interpretation, not interpolation. It is astonishing he has not only done well but, has also found a tone, or perhaps it is an idiom, that works. These renderings will open new vistas for imagination of non-Sindhi audiences and quicken their sensibilities. Moreover none knows better the cruel inadequacy of poetical translation like the translator. Faces and phases of Taj Baloch’s poetry are swaying and singing like a pretty damsel in English costume ‘Grief in Tatters’ translated by Latif Noonari. In this difficult task of translation Noonari has proved his acumen by keeping alive the spirit and soul of poems. This collection contains fifty two short and long poems and eighteen quatrains in different poetic meters and forms which:he feels are best representation of complete poetical works of Taj Baloch. Overall impression produced by his work, particularly English translation by Latif Noonari does echo a tone of irony, discontent, and optimism which is unique in its beauty of color, fragrance, unorthodox infinity. Common to poetry – continued therein thought, meaning, massage – is a critical interest in the nature of ‘time, space and human being. This trinity is a ‘creative power’ that is responsible for the birth, continuity, destruction and re-birth- not in religious idiom, or term. This verse translation conveys the literary richness and cultural significance of the original Sindhi version. His engrossing concentration and efforts on textual aspects are worthy to mention. Particularly lyrical structure of the original text is unambiguously peeping out from English rendering. It does not require here to attempt a technical discussion of the music which is melodiously flowing in these rendered poems. I hope this English translation of poems with varying moods, emotions, imagery and scents therein would find the wide literally influence upon non Sindhi diverse audiences. Vocabulary of these poems is highly concentrated. It would not be inappropriate to mention that in this translation, I am convinced, his skills and standards are at par -sometimes excel – with Agha Salim and Salim Khuwaja (Salim Noorhus), who both are old pioneers of this tricky and thorny track. I would again stress that this translation is true representation of the original Sindhi version. In English he has successfully found out diction which is receptive to the letters, words, meanings, and textures of Taj Baloch’s original output. In his rendering ‘word and feeling’, ‘sense and sound’ functions inseparably, complements each other and intensify the mood of expression. I would like to add that much before Noonari, Edward Fitzgerald, a man of letters and translator achieved fame with his free poetic version of the Persian quatrains, “The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam” which was classical in its poise; which startled and fascinated ‘world of letters’. Richard Burton’s ‘Arabian Nights’ rendering into English too made ripples in the ‘literary world’ and till today could be seen/heard rippling, sighing and captivating; then, Adgar Allen Poe’s (poems) French renderings made Charles Baudelaire an immortal figure in French literature. When Sir William Jones first translated the ‘Shakuntala’ in 1789, this Sanskrit master piece was highly acclaimed in Europe, and most warmly, as was fitting, by the greatest living poet of Europe : ‘Goethe’. To save my soul from sinning his glowing tribute to Kalidasa is worthy to repeat and re-repeat; K A L I D A S A An ancient heathen poet, loving more God’s creatures, and His women, and His flowers Than we who boast of consecrated powers; Still lavishing his unexhausted store Of love’s deep simple wisdom, healing o’er The world s old sorrows. India s griefs and ours; That healing love he found in palace towers, On mountain, plain, and dark, sea-belted shore, In songs of holy Raghu’s kingly line Or sweet Shankutala in pious grove, In hearts that met where starry jasmines twine Or hearts that from long, lovelorn absence strove Together. Still his words of wisdom shine: All’s well with man, when man and woman love. Here poet Jay Deva’s epoch making beautiful poetic creation (in Sanskrit language) ‘Geeta Govinda’ (12th century A.D Bengal ) or The Indian song of songs’ gracefully raising it self from depths of mind. In 18th century it was rendered into English in versified form by renowned scholar Sir Edwin Arnold. Positive impact of this lovelorn and marvelous rendering made Sir Arnold a house hold name in literary world of both east and west. It is said,” poetry is distinguished from ordinary moods of speech by the controlled and stylized ways it strives to transcend-the limits of ordinary language.” Taj Baloch seems to me, in some of his ‘silvery’ poems, embodiment of erotic mood, costumed in dark gloom- and Sindh is his ‘dream girl’ and is identified with his ‘passion’, the emotion (his emotion is both personified and impersonified, divested and un-divested by all the accidents of circumstance- and distilled by art) through which said erotic mood develops. A passion ‘personified’ is consort to him like Rati is with Kama and Psyche is with Cupid. Here esthetic experience, the world of sense experience, and cultural experience (related to Sindh and its simple people) are basic (woven with each other like Jumana, at its confluence, with Ganges- at Allahabad) to him. In his complete works his unfulfilled and anguished life could be seen slowly unfolding itself like an old saga, or episode from Valmiki, Vedvyas, Homer. His world is not the creation of ‘art’ as before him Dante, Kalidasa, Homer used to show us. It is the world of insistent, pushing, loathsome realities and ever growing pressures. His green world of creativity possesses plentitude, beauty, grace, love, patriotism- and unending clouds of dark gloom where ominous loss of IDENTITY is looming around. In this world pattern of dream- illusion and of forgetfulness- recollection-recognition, too are intricately interwoven. Taj’s accomplishment lies in the manner in which his poetry escapes the constraints of the poetics of his time, even while it acknowledges those poetics, if indeed there exists, poetics that directs his genius. I am yet to find out concrete ‘objects of beauty in his poetry so far, as I did capture in Ayaz’s Circe-like world. But, there in Taj I have discovered an ‘intrinsic beauty’ scattered all over in his romancing creations like those heavenly flowers I viewed and inhaled their exquisite fragrance in the Valley of flowers’ adjacent to Himalaya peaks near ever flowing Ganges. In his poems nature is regarded as the great kindler of desire. His Sindhi usage is simple, musical and direct which is spoken in the towns and villages of Sindh. He is trying to live there according to his creed: that of love for humanity, and Sindh. This notion is quite transparent from his voluminous poetical works. His non-specific or allegorical pieces appear as the sparks that ascend from time to time out of the matrix of his humanistic and humane concerns. He, I fear, is destined to pay with his life for his poetry. His end looming overhead seems to me endless; because, malice of this city grows no less. They strive, and are intent to brand him eternally. He is the poetic voice of aspiring youth in the present abnormal conditions of’ disillusionment’ and ‘thaw’. His genuine idealism and his passionate espousal of the human side of human nature cannot be denied. He is, basically, a revolutionary romantic and has transmuted suffering of Sind into a universal image. Most of his contemporary poets (say Ayaz) used to look to ‘love’ for inspiration but, he looks to ‘inspiration’ for love -and struggling in an uneasy world for creativity in an altogether an alienating environment. He has fully learnt to see himself and the world of toil and torment in an autumnal nakedness when, he and the world around becomes transparent. His ‘insight’ has firmly taken roots, and has born out of ‘silence’; calmly shedding all noise in the name of new leaves, buds, and flowers. Ultimately these, piling on each other, silently become ‘soil and his inner autumn, devoid of passion, touches his brow with airy fingers. Keeping faith with truth, however quietly, needs spirit. His love, seems me, is for ever, for all human beings, to the ruinous ancient mounds scattered all over the length and breath of Sind, to the torn wound of us all, and to the ‘line’ unfinished. One must live- neither boozing, the rope ( which Mayakovsky used) nor company of women can rescue us, only our mother land-Sind-gives hope; only devotion and sincerity, my friend, can save us. It is really amazing to find him, in these un-airy conditions, living with those are ‘dead’, and those not yet ‘alive’. At present chaotic times, and in this forlorn ‘soil’ a great quickening of the human mind is discernable, and artistic impulse, dipped in these painful un-assuaging moments, creating pulsating works of poesy and prose- in classical and modern forms, full of cries of protest, outbursts against injustice both in softer and strong artistic tones- cannot perish. Taj Baloch is one of lone bare-footed travelers on this hell-fire path. Though he is not indeed prodigy of learning, like Tagore in Bengal or D.D. Kosambi in Maharashtra or Ayaz in Smdh, yet no man could write as he does without hard and intelligent study. He has a minutely accurate knowledge of the Sindhi language and literature. Every literati, particularly poet, composing in any language, writes in what may be called a strange idiom; that he does-not write as he talks. Yet it is true that the gap between written language and vernacular has remained wider every where. He has not only deeply sipped from written books- there are a few souls, who walked ‘rural and urban’ mother earth of ours, observed the phenomena of living nature as accurately as he’, though his accuracy is of course that of the poet, not that of the scientist. He is, with a sharp eye and open mind, moving among all human beings (inclusive of creatures and natural world) with sympathy for all, fanaticism for none. I am justified in concluding that he is, in matters of religion and culture, what William James would call” healthy-minded”, emphatically not a “sick soul”. There are certain other impressions of his vibrant life and personality which gradually become convictions in the mind of one who reads and re-reads his poetry, though they are less easily susceptible of exact proof. One thing more that he possesses fascination for ‘beauty’ in all forms, as it or……. In turn fascinates him. Such men are never fully appreciated during life. They continue to grow after they are dead. Speaking of Ayaz and Taj is more laconic in this alliterative line: Ayaz is mirth, melody, music. Taj is grace, gloom, grief. He courageously preserves his intellectual’ balance at arts, and also his intuitive initiative. The best proof of a poet’s greatness is the inability of men/ women to live without him. He is primarily a poet of both human heart, and of natural beauty. These two characteristics unite in him. Both are interwoven with human feeling. So exquisitely this amalgamation has been accomplished that none can say which ‘phase’ of him is superior. Though his poetical fluency is not rare: like wise intellectual grasp is not very uncommon: but the ‘harmonious combination’ is at the other end of the world: RARETY in its bare, bosomy and beautiful form! Total effect left is one of extraordinary success and delicacy of taste. Though ‘renaissance’ in Sindh seems to be a far away shadow but, it is interesting to observe that the Indian mythical ‘sea whirling’ coincides with present Intellectual fomentation’ which may perhaps helps to usher in ‘light’ in this unfortunate land of ours. “By poetry”, says Macaulay,” we mean the art of employing words in such a manner as to produce an illusion on the imagination, the art of doing by means of words what the painter does by means of colors.” This production of an illusion of the imagination enables the reader of poetry to get pleasure from” the rhythmic creation of beauty”. Poet can express his ideas artistically in two ways: either by keeping him- self aloof from the subject-matter of his poetry or receiving inspiration from his own experiences, thought and feelings. The first kind,”…………is the poetry in which the poet goes out of him self, mingles with the action and passion of the world without, and deals with what he discovers there with little reference to his own individuality”. And in the second, he ‘goes down into himself and finds inspiration from his subjects in his own experiences, thoughts and feelings. Lyric comes under this second category of poetry. There are different views and definition of lyrical poetry but, everyone has accepted the fundamental quality of lyric to be its music. Taj’s major part of poetic creation, almost in all forms, pervades in the lyrical plane. His lyricism clearly embodies three major elements which are supposedly considered to be its ‘soul’: a strong imagination, strong feelings, and emotion and music. These touch all aspects of his experience inclusive of boundless love for humanity, and Sindh. Besides these elements there is much more, “its simple language and imagery characterised not only by beauty and vividness but also by propriety, or the harmony which in all art is required between the subject and its medium.” His glory as a poet lies in the gift of his extra ordinary sensibility and his power to express it in artistic and musical language. He has subdued every poetic element to a harmony of a artistic perfection. Taj gives (in his work) individual expression, the beauty of form to a body of common sentiments and thoughts which he shares with all of us. These thoughts also have for his generation the-validity of Universal truths. In these thoughts intense emotion coupled with an intense display of imagery supports and feeds new literature i.e. romantic element. Though it is considered to be ‘subjective’ type of poetry with its emotional fervor, appetite for experience, escapism of one or another kind and freedom from the shackles of tradition (in the choice of theme, in the use words, in rhyme, in meter etc) this revolution in poetics could easily be perceived from his such poems. He clearly and curiously stands out romanticizing with ‘body’ nature, fragrance, freedom, and liberty; discarding smelly rules, conventions- and present leprosy- ridden political scenario. As a poet overwhelming consciousness is his hallmark. His poetry is imbibed with vision, lucidity, clarity and courage- it is a continuous process. Certainly his poetical creations will fully be recognized throughout Sindh for not only the intensity of their ‘poetical charm’ but many versified pieces are attired in colorful ‘proverbial forms’. And in between patriotic and cultural expression it is an added factor. These verses are deceptively simple in their surface beauty, infused with a wealth of meaning, in modern and traditional idiom; imbedded in them are structurally intricate forms and concepts drawn from various levels of healthy Sindhi literary tradition, and global progressive literary movements in whose centre survival and progress of human kind is basic concept. In poetic world ‘theoretical ideal’ is that an isolated verse, stanza should be appreciated on its own merit without any larger context- and there could be found scattered many verses, stanzas in his poems having varying and different forms, meanings. There could be seen abundant detail and complexity of thought compressed into a simple metrical pattern. This miniature context is enriched at some places by rhetorical ornamentation. The figures of speech commonly employed include many subtle varieties of metaphor simile, allegory, hyperbole, irony and sarcasm. When words and images rich with connotations are used, they create multiple layer of meaning and thus intensify the aesthetic mood of the poem. The notion of ‘sentiment’ or mood or taste’ or ‘flavor’ is at the heart of Sindhi poetry. Taj Baloch distills essential qualities from spontaneous emotion, and structures them in order to awaken an aesthetic response in his audience of connoisseurs. In classical Sindhi poetry (Shah, Sachal, Sami) new ideas, imagery, and techniques were as important as are today along with skillful manipulation of conventional language as is today. Some stanzas in poems possess amazing depth and intensity precisely because Taj Baloch considers, as I perceive, the confusion, longing, pain, and ephemeral pleasure of love to be at the centre of human existence, implicit in any account of man’s condition. I have enjoyed the sensuous nuances of the changing natural world (rural and urban) evoked in some of his poems which convey human dispositions. Taj expresses, like Byron, Shelly, Ayaz, Josh, and Mustafa Zaidi, emotion amidst a multiplicity of sensuous qualities (colors, tastes, textures, scents, sounds), and especially in his romantic verses, and he tends to luxuriate in the richness which, both nature and body provides. He rather exerts to compress the profusion of its qualities into a flavor, into a thick emotion-laden atmosphere. This compactness of qualities resides in ‘Eros and nature’ which, ultimately evoke passion in men/women. That quiet beauty of rural experience in combination with urban raw. ruthless and cruel surroundings provided him an environment conducive to rumination and natural spontaneity from whose womb lithe, mermaid-like verses were flowing shapely (having meaning, purpose, content, and devoid of any abstract absurdity) with infinite touch, color, and fragrance in all forms and hues. In his aesthetic consciousness the elements of sensuous experience mixed with natural environment (hostile or humble) are always present, no matter how transfigured. He is expressing a concern, in all his creative works, with salvation (material) which is the motivating force behind his ‘thought’. There is uniqueness in the unorthodox juxtaposition of ideas to reinforce both the poet’s own sense of suffering and his unflinching desire to engage in fight with ‘HUMAN DIRT’, till last sip of his life. Some times I felt and deduced his poetry being an intricate web of conflicting moments and attractions. It is beautiful and pleasurable, but beauty becomes bitter when he feels staggering weight of ruthless, deaf, numb, ‘time’ and its capricious nature which suffocates him- and he witnesses his own absurd position in it. At this juncture he flares up, becomes an urchin, and for time being losses his balance. This curious and unpleasant behavior ought, and must be condoned. Present Sindh is passing through a period of unprecedented turmoil vulgarity and farce. Here hatred and contempt are considered as forms of amusement. Its existence is at stake. From times since prehistory this land of ‘love and peace’ never ever confronted such wrathful spectre. Karachi being its centre, radiating poisonous fumes, unabatedly. And here creative souls, such as Taj Baloch are waging unstopped war, almost single-handedly, to save ‘honour and existence’ of their mother-land in different ‘idiom’. Penetrating eye could sift it from his poetical works. Passionate lovers of ‘fine styles’ always expose themselves to the contempt of pedestrians, and Taj Baloch is not the only one. Even then he could be seen extracting ‘good’ from the ‘evil’ With this single stroke of ‘strange idiom’ he has both won and deserved the glory. This uneven product (as stupidity claims) of the ‘muse of burning Sindh’ enlivens again, dares once more to face the profound darkened face of stupidity. This Lilliputian character really amazes me: he enjoys hatred, and glorified by contempt. Before him Baudelaire, Firaq, Byron, Manto, Sappho, Hafiz Sheikh and many others passed through this, so called, eclipsing phase- and now are acclaimed and placed at the pedestal of ‘value and wisdom’. Perfection of style and rhythm and refinement of sound and cadence of his is such many contemporaries of him are not capable. He witnesses in established institutions, dictators/feudals turned politicians, and politicians turned rakes and mullas, all the diverse forms of evil and obstacles to happiness and progress in the same manner as much before him Shelly saw, and viewed same DIRT in his era. At the end of these closing words, suddenly a white gleam descended from coffins of yore buried nowhere. I would like you be witness to its glare: ORPHEUS IN TATTERS Who is he, this passer-by? Crank, philosopher, wanderer, fool? The man in shaggy paint, in a torn greasy coat Shuffles along the crowded street. What thoughts, views, revelations? Clearly, he has great schemes in mind. How scared he is of human contact, The clumsy touch of other men. His mission is to engage us all In single combat, but he is so made, A mere piece of grit casually blown Off your sleeve might strike him dead

By: Shyam Kumar

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